To Make Nutrient-rich Organic Fertilizer by Composting
Compost is a type of nutrient-rich bio-organic fertilizer. It mainly consists of various plant residues (crop straw, weed, leaf, peat, rubbish and other waste, etc) and human or animal manure; these mixtures finally form compost by means of composting and decomposing.
The effect of composting
Organic fertilizer needs to go through three periods of ripe composting before coming into use: first, oxygen-free ripe composting. During this period, the labile elements and harmful ingredients in raw materials can be converted to ensure the safety and efficiency of fertilizer; second, high temperature ripe composting. At high temperature the malignant becteria can be killed and humus content will also be increased at the same time, thus the efficiency of fertilizer is improved; third, aerobic ripe composting. In this way the number of functional bacterias,like GM-number 2,4,5 .etc,can increase by breeding completely.
How to start composting
Common composting: the fertilizer becomes completely decomposed in oxygen-free condition with temperature under 50℃. This composting period lasts a long time which is about three to five months. Besides, the place of composting will be different as the different seasons.
1.flat land pattern: this pattern is suitable for the areas or summer with high temperature, plentiful rainfall, high humidity and high water-tables. The place for composting should be flat and dry, near the source of water and convenient for transportation.
2.Shallow-pit pattern: during the early spring and winter in the northern part of the country this pattern is adopted. The pit should be bulit in the lee heights with a sunny exposure.
3.Deep-pit pattern: the depth of pit is usually about two meters and all the fertilizer is located in the pit for composting.
High-temperature composting: this method is mainly used to deal with organic fertilizer and human waste. After high-temperature composting the harmful matters such as bacteria and worms’ eggs in straw and human waste can be eradicated. To speed up the decomposing of straw, compost should be inoculated with high temperature cellulose-decomposing bacteria. Besides the air breather should be set up and cold resistant measures should be taken in cold areas.
Effective constituent of compost
Compost usually contains 15-25% organic matters, 60-65 % moisture, 0.4-0.5%Nitrogen, 0.18-0.26%Phosphor and 0.45-0.67%Potassium. The carbon nitrogen ratio of it is 16-20:1. Fertilizer after high-temperature composting has higher nutrient content and organic matters than common composting.
To make good quality and nutritious bio-organic fertilizer, the very composting tool- compost turner is necessary.
During compost turning, compost turner integrates blending and crushing for bio-organics decomposing. It accelerates fermentation speed and prevents generation of poisonous and smelly gas such as sulfuretted hydrogen, amine gas, etc. Therefore, compost tuner is in favor of environment and improves fertilizer efficiency.