1. Applying Proper Amount of Fertilizer
Within a certain range, the productivity of crops is positively correlated to fertilizing amount. Excessively increasing total fertilizing amount or single fertilizer applying amount may cause crop failure. Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and trace elements needed by crops are all indispensible. Their applying amount and ratio should be decided by soil fertility and the crops’ characteristics of requiring fertilizers.
2. Use the Right Fertilizing Method
★ Different fertilizer has different characteristics. We should choose application method accordingly.
★ Make rational use of deep placement, concentration placement and bedded placement.
★ Apply enough base fertilizer, making sure the crops have sufficient fertilizer supply in seedling stage. At later stage of growth apply top dressing to avoid fertilizer shortage. Top dressing can not only meet the crops’ demand for nutrients in time, but also decrease the nutrients fixation by soil.
Different soil requires different fertilizing method. For argillaceous soil, mainly apply base fertilizer and early top dressing. For sandy soil, applying more time but smaller amount at each. For loamy soil, mainly base fertilizer, base fertilizer and top dressing combined.
★Popularize the use of new high efficient fertilizer such as slow/controlled-release fertilizer, ecological fertilizer, etc. By controlling the releasing speed of fertilizer nutrient, slow/controlled-release fertilizer can increase the fertilizer using efficiency at quite a high rate.
3. Rational Fertilizing Time
The critical period of nutrition and maximum efficiency period are two key periods for crops absorbing nutrients. The critical period of nutrition is usually in the early growth stage. In this period, the crops’ demand for phosphorous is especially apparent. We should ensure proper amount of nutrients supply. In the maximum efficiency period, the requisite amount of one or several nutrients is large. Applying chemical fertilizer in this period can give play to yield-increasing potential.
Some crops have different sensibility for different nutrient elements. Their rate of absorbtion and utilization for sensible elements is high. We should apply fertilizer in the crops’ most sensitive periods according to their growth period and fertilizer requirement law.Z
4. Mixing Use of Chemical Fertilizer and Organic Fertilizer
Organic fertilizer contains comprehensive nutrients. By mixing chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer, we could cover the shortage of the single nutrient of chemical fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer has fast efficiency, while the efficiency of organic fertilizer is lasting. Mixing use of them can complement each other, fulfill the nutrient supply of the whole growth period of crops. The buffering and fertilizer conservation capability of organic fertilizer can help reduce nutrient loss and further increasing fertilizer use efficiency.
5. Strengthening the Work of Water Management, Promoting Fertilizer Absorption
The available nutrient in fertilizer should be dissolved in water before they can be absorbed, conveyed and metabolized by plant root system. Irrigation of proper amount can increase fertilizer use efficiency, but too much or too little will cause the decrease of utilization rate.
We should improve the farmland infrastructure, raising the capacity of preserving water. Improve the quality of cultivated land, raising soil water retention and fertilizer conservation capability.