The decomposition of organic matter occurs from the initial appearance of life on our planet. Composting is an artificial process utilizing decomposition for sanitary recycling and reclamation of organic waste material. Such organic materials are converted to a more stable form for use as a soil amendment, which is called compost. Compost is a rich source of organic matter, while soil organic matter plays an important role in sustaining soil fertility. In addition to being a source of plant nutrient, it improves the physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil. Generally there are two processes that yield compost: anaerobic decomposition and aerobic decomposition.
In anaerobic decomposition, oxygen does not have access. Organic compounds break down by the action of living organisms that do not require air, and develop intermediate compounds including methane, organic acids, hydrogen sulphide and other substances, many of which have strong odours and some present phytotoxicity. These compounds accumulate and are not metabolized further in the anaerobic environment.
Much less heat is generated in anaerobic decomposition than in aerobic decomposition. This is a definite disadvantage if contaminated materials are used for composting, since temperatures are needed for the destruction of pathogens and parasites, otherwise, their disappearance will be slow, and you will have to make compost this year and use it next year. Anaerobic composting requires less work, so it is preferred by some people.
Aerobic process is most common in nature. In aerobic composting, aerobic organisms utilize considerable amounts of oxygen in decomposing organic matter to a relatively stable humus under suitable environmental conditions. Although intermediate compounds such as organic acids may be produced, aerobic micro-organisms decompose them further. There is no accompanying bad smell when there is adequate oxygen present. The resultant compost has little risk of phytotoxicity. During composting a great deal of energy is released in the form of heat in the oxidation of the carbon to C02. The heat accelerates the fermentation and makes the processing time shorter. Moreover, sufficient high temperature could destroy pathogens, as well as weed seeds.
Either by anaerobic composting or by aerobic composting, a heap of compostable material is moistened with water and left to decompose for a passage of time. The temperature first rises because of bacterial activity, and then begins to fall as the oxygen is run out and the bacteria start dying. In aerobic composting, the compost is turned to get more oxygen to reinvigorate the bacteria and keeps the process going. A combination approach has also been used in which case the compost pile is left alone longer than desirable before turned, allowing the anaerobic bacteria to get established, but not take over the pile. Once the pile is turned, the aerobic bacteria are able to reestablish themselves.
Our self-propelled compost turner is designed according to the principle of aerobic fermentation. It blends and crushes the material for bio-organics decomposing, accelerating fermentation speed and effectively preventing the generation of harmful odorous gases, cost-effective and profitable for both fertilizer production plants and farms.